Real World Example
We recently had a customer who wanted to know how many people were downloading their monthly newsletter. Their Analytics stats told them how many people were visiting their newsletter archive page, but they still had no idea of how many times the newsletters were being downloaded.
To solve this problem, we developed a script that listens for clicks on all of the PDF links on the page. Now, when a link is clicked, the event is captured and tracked with Google Analytics. This customer now has a view in the Analytics dashboard that provides all of the data that they need to see how many visitors are proceeding to download a newsletter (the event) after arriving at the page. They can get even more granular and see how many of each of the newsletters available are being downloaded.
The above is a fairly simple implementation of analytics event tracking and in most cases it is probably all that is needed to increase the useful information gathered by analytics.